What is Amniotic Band Syndrome?
ABS refers to abnormalities caused by fibrous strands that can entangle or confine developing parts of the fetus. These strands are believed to arise from membranes that form outside the placenta. If the amniotic sac ruptures during gestation, the protective barrier of the sac is removed from the area between the placenta and the developing fetus, and the strands can become exposed and trap parts of the fetus. Symptoms associated with amniotic band syndrome include limb or skull abnormalities, cleft lip/palate, scoliosis, and other, more complex abnormalities. The most common symptoms of this syndrome include a circular, indented type of scar (constriction ring) around the arms, legs, fingers, or toes, or complete amputation of arms, legs, fingers, or toes.